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Language disorders stuttering types of stuttering developmental stuttering neurogenic stuttering psychogenic stuttering causes of stuttering symptoms of stuttering stuttering treatment stuttering therapy for child prevention of stuttering stammering

What're the symptoms of stuttering?

Some symptoms of stuttering speech include: Repetition of sounds (e.g., b-b-b-ball), syllables (e.g., mo-mo-mommy), parts of words (e.g., basket-basket-basketball), whole words, and phrases; Prolongation , or stretching, of sounds or syllables (e.g., r-----abbit); Tense pauses, hesitations, and/or no sound between words; Speech that occurs in spurts, as the client tries to initiate or maintain voice; Related behaviors: reactions that accompany stuttering such as tense muscles in the lips, jaw, and/or neck; tremor of the lips, jaw, and/or tongue during attempts to speak; foot tapping. eye blinks, head

turns, etc. [to try to escape from the stuttering]; etc. There are many related behaviors that can occur and vary from person to person. Variability in stuttering behavior, depending on the speaking situation, the communication partner(s), and the speaking task. A person who stutters may experience more fluency in the speech-language pathologist' s office than in a classroom or workplace. There may be no difficulty making a special dinner request at home, but extreme difficulty ordering a meal in a restaurant. Conversation with a spouse may be easier, and more fluent, than that with a boss. A person may be completely fluent when singing, but experience significant stuttering when talking on the telephone. A feeling of loss of control . The person who stutters may experience sound and word fears, situational fears, anticipation of stuttering, embarrassment, and a sense of shame. Certain sounds or words may be avoided. One word may be substituted for another that is thought to be harder to say. Or, certain speaking situations may be avoided altogether. For example, a person who stutters may always wait for someone else to answer the phone. Or, he or she may walk around a store for an hour rather than ask sales staff where an item can be found. These reactions to stuttering occur in more advanced stages.

It is important to note that most children repeat sounds or syllables and pronounce words incorrectly when they are learning to speak. This is referred to as normal dysfluency. However, with true stuttering, these speech behaviors occur more often (3 percent or more of the words spoken) and repetitions of sounds or words last longer than half a second. In addition, normal problems with fluency tend to come and go, or happen at certain times, such as when a child is tired or excited, but true stuttering is present most of the time.

Once a child begins to stutter, he or she may feel embarrassed, self-conscious or anxious when asked to speak. The child may find it hard to socialize with friends and also may intentionally avoid situations where talking is expected, including telephone calls, classroom discussions and school plays.

Ironically, many children who stutter have no problem when they sing. According to some experts, this is because speaking and singing often come from opposite sides of the brain, especially in right-handed people.

More information on stuttering

What is stuttering? - Stuttering is a complex set of behaviours that may involve repeating sounds, syllables or words, prolonging sounds, blocking or hesitating, and avoiding or substituting words.
What types of stuttering are there? - There are several types of stuttering, including developmental stuttering, neurogenic stuttering, and psychogenic stuttering.
What is developmental stuttering? - Developmental stuttering generally occurs because a child's neurological system is not ready for all of the language that they are trying to say.
What is neurogenic stuttering? - Neurogenic stuttering is a signal problem between the brain and the nerves or muscles controlling speech. Neurogenic stuttering has repetitions, prolongations, and blocks.
What is psychogenic stuttering? - Psychogenic stuttering is originates in the area of the brain that directs thought and reasoning. Psychogenic stuttering is rare.
What causes stuttering? - Although the exact cause of stuttering is not known, there are three leading theories that propose how stuttering develops.
What're the symptoms of stuttering? - Symptoms of stuttering speech include repetition of sounds, prolongation , or stretching, of sounds or syllables, related behaviors.
What're the treatment for stuttering? - The goal of stuttering treatment is to focus on relearning how to speak, or to unlearn incorrect ways of speaking.
What's the stuttering therapy for child? - Treatment for stuttering is much more effective in childhood. Some children appear to recover from stuttering without any intervention.
How to prevent stuttering? - Locations of genes that predispose people to stuttering. Speech therapy can stop the progression of stuttering.
What is stammering? - Stammering is a communication disorder in which the normal flow of speech is broken by repetitions, prolongations, or abnormal stoppages of sounds and syllables.
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