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What is Japanese encephalitis?

Japanese encephalitis is a viral disease that infects animals and humans. It is transmitted by mosquitoes and in humans causes inflammation of the membranes around the brain. Intensification and expansion of irrigated rice production

systems in South and South-East Asia over the past 20 years have had an important impact on the disease burden caused by Japanese encephalitis. Where irrigation expands into semi-arid areas, the flooding of the fields at the start of each cropping cycle leads to an explosive build-up of the mosquito population. This may cause the circulation of the virus to spill over from their usual hosts (birds and pigs) into the human population.

Japanese encephalitis is a leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia with 30,000-50,000 clinical cases reported annually. It occurs from the islands of the Western Pacific in the east to the Pakistani border in the west, and from Korea in the north to Papua New Guinea in the south. Because of the critical role of pigs, its presence in Muslim countries is negligible. JE distribution is very significantly linked to irrigated rice production combined with pig rearing.

More information on encephalitis

What is encephalitis? - Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain, caused by a direct viral infection or a hypersensitivity reaction to a virus or foreign protein.
What causes encephalitis? - The cause of encephalitis varies depending on the season, the area of the country, and the exposure of the child. Viruses are the leading cause of encephalitis.
What're the symptoms of encephalitis? - The symptoms of encephalitis vary depending on the cause of the encephalitis. Patients with encephalitis suffer from fever, headache, vomiting, confusion.
How is encephalitis diagnosed? - Diagnosis of encephalitis includes careful questioning to determine possible exposure to viral sources. Tests which can help confirm the diagnosis.
What's the treatment for encephalitis? - Choice of treatment for encephalitis will depend on the cause. Bacterial encephalitis is treated with antibiotics. Viral encephalitis is usually treated with antiviral drugs.
Can encephalitis be prevented? - Encephalitis may be prevented by avoiding the infection. Vaccines are available against some viruses, including polio, herpes B, Japanese encephalitis.
What is Japanese encephalitis? - Japanese encephalitis is a viral disease that infects animals and humans. Japanese encephalitis is a leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia.
What causes Japanese encephalitis? - Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a disease caused by a flavivirus that affects the membranes around the brain.
What're the symptoms of Japanese encephalitis? - Japanese encephalitis begins with fever, severe headache, nausea, and vomiting. The patient will develop a stiff and painful neck.
How is Japanese encephalitis diagnosed? - The diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis is made primarily on the basis of the patient's symptoms and the knowledge of illnesses endemic to a particular geographic region.
What's the treatment for Japanese encephalitis? - There are no treatments available to stop or slow the progression of Japanese encephalitis. Only the symptoms of each patient can be treated.
What's herpes encephalitis? - Herpes encephalitis is inflammation of the brain. Herpes simplex infection is a relatively common cause of meningo-encephalitis.
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