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Apraxia

Apraxia is an oral motor disorder that results in a severe articulation, or expressive, disorder. Children who have apraxia have difficulty sequencing automatically the sounds that are necessary for intelligible speech. There are several types of apraxia including limb-kinetic (inability to make fine, precise movements with a limb), ideomotor (inability to carry out a motor command), ideational (inability to create a plan for or idea of a specific movement), buccofacial or facial-oral (inability to carry out facial movements on command, i.e., lick lips, whistle, cough, or wink) - which is perhaps the most common form, verbal (difficulty coordinating mouth and speech movements), constructional (inability to draw or construct simple configurations), and oculomotor (difficulty moving the eyes). Most parietal lobe apraxia is related to loss of the area's capacity to recognize spatially executed tasks, even well-learned ones. Corticobasal ganglionic degeneration affects elderly patients in particular and impairs parietal lobe functions. As a result, spatial awareness of the arm is sometimes lost, and the arm may become incapable of performing previously learned motor tasks. Apraxia may be accompanied by a language disorder called aphasia. Generally, treatment for individuals with apraxia includes physical and or occupational therapy. If apraxia is a symptom of another disorder, the underlying disorder should be treated.

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