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All about dementia types of dementia risk factors for dementia causes of dementia symptoms of dementia diagnosis of dementia dementia treatments long term dementia care alcohol-related dementia frontal lobe dementia senile dementia (Alzheimer dementia) early onset dementia AIDS related dementia Alzheimer's disease (Alzheimer dementia) types of Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer dementia stages causes of Alzheimer's disease risk factors for Alzheimer's disease warning signs of Alzheimer's disease symptoms of Alzheimer's disease diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease treatment for Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's disease medications Alzheimer's disease diet Alzheimer's disease exercise therapy prognosis of Alzheimer's disease vascular dementia vascular dementia types multi-infarct dementia Binswanger's disease causes of vascular dementia vascular dementia risk factors vascular dementia symptoms diagnosis of vascular dementia treatments for vascular dementia lewy body dementia lewy body dementia causes lewy body dementia symptoms diagnosing lewy body dementia treatment of lewy body dementia Pick's disease causes of Pick's disease symptoms of Pick's disease diagnosis of Pick's disease treatment for Pick's disease

What're the stages of Alzheimer's disease?

Article from Alzheimer's Association' website (www.alz.org)

Stage 1: No cognitive impairment

Unimpaired individuals experience no memory problems and none are evident to a health care professional during a medical interview.


Stage 2: Very mild cognitive decline

Individuals at this stage feel as if they have memory lapses, especially in forgetting familiar words or names or the location of keys, eyeglasses, or other everyday objects. But these problems are not evident during a medical examination or apparent to friends, family, or co-workers.

Stage 3: Mild cognitive decline

Early-stage Alzheimer's can be diagnosed in some, but not all, individuals with these symptoms

Friends, family, or co-workers begin to notice deficiencies. Problems with memory or concentration may be measurable in clinical testing or discernible during a detailed medical interview. Common difficulties include:

  • Word- or name-finding problems noticeable to family or close associates
  • Decreased ability to remember names when introduced to new people
  • Performance issues in social or work settings noticeable to family, friends, or co-workers
  • Reading a passage and retaining little material
  • Losing or misplacing a valuable object
  • Decline in ability to plan or organize


    Stage 4: Moderate cognitive decline (Mild or early-stage Alzheimer's disease)

    At this stage, a careful medical interview detects clear-cut deficiencies in the following areas:
  • Decreased knowledge of recent occasions or current events
  • Impaired ability to perform challenging mental arithmetic-for example, to count backward from 100 by 7s
  • Decreased capacity to perform complex tasks, such as marketing, planning dinner for guests, or paying bills and managing finances
  • Reduced memory of personal history
  • The affected individual may seem subdued and withdrawn, especially in socially or mentally challenging situations
  • Stage 5: Moderately severe cognitive decline (Moderate or mid-stage Alzheimer's disease)

    Major gaps in memory and deficits in cognitive function emerge. Some assistance with day-to-day activities becomes essential. At this stage, individuals may:
  • Be unable during a medical interview to recall such important details as their current address, their telephone number, or the name of the college or high school from which they graduated
  • Become confused about where they are or about the date, day of the week, or season
  • Have trouble with less challenging mental arithmetic; for example, counting backward from 40 by 4s or from 20 by 2s
  • Need help choosing proper clothing for the season or the occasion
  • Usually retain substantial knowledge about themselves and know their own name and the names of their spouse or children
  • Usually require no assistance with eating or using the toilet
  • Stage 6: Severe cognitive decline (Moderately severe or mid-stage Alzheimer's disease)

    Memory difficulties continue to worsen, significant personality changes may emerge, and affected individuals need extensive help with customary daily activities. At this stage, individuals may:
  • Lose most awareness of recent experiences and events as well as of their surroundings
  • Recollect their personal history imperfectly, although they generally recall their own name
  • Occasionally forget the name of their spouse or primary caregiver but generally can distinguish familiar from unfamiliar faces
  • Need help getting dressed properly; without supervision, may make such errors as putting pajamas over daytime clothes or shoes on wrong feet
  • Experience disruption of their normal sleep/waking cycle
  • Need help with handling details of toileting (flushing toilet, wiping, and disposing of tissue properly)
  • Have increasing episodes of urinary or fecal incontinence
  • Experience significant personality changes and behavioral symptoms, including suspiciousness and delusions (for example, believing that their caregiver is an impostor); hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that are not really there); or compulsive, repetitive behaviors such as hand-wringing or tissue shredding
  • Tend to wander and become lost


    Stage 7: Very severe cognitive decline (Severe or late-stage Alzheimer's disease)

    This is the final stage of the disease when individuals lose the ability to respond to their environment, the ability to speak, and, ultimately, the ability to control movement.
  • Frequently individuals lose their capacity for recognizable speech, although words or phrases may occasionally be uttered
  • Individuals need help with eating and toileting and there is general incontinence of urine
  • Individuals lose the ability to walk without assistance, then the ability to sit without support, the ability to smile, and the ability to hold their head up. Reflexes become abnormal and muscles grow rigid. Swallowing is impaired.
  • More information on dementia (Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, lewy body dementia, Pick's disease)

    What is dementia? - Dementia is a deterioration of intellectual function and other cognitive skills. Dementia may involve progressive deterioration of thinking, memory, behavior, personality and motor function.
    What types of dementia are there? - Types of dementia include Alzheimer's dementia, vascular dementias, Parkinson disease, Lewy body dementia, alcohol-related dementia, and Pick disease.
    What're the risk factors for dementia? - The main risk factor for dementia is age. People who have sustained serious head injuries through boxing are prone to dementia pugilistica.
    What causes dementia? - Dementia is caused by degeneration in the cerebral cortex including death of brain cells, conditions that impair the vascular or neurologic structures of the brain.
    What're the symptoms of dementia? - The early symptom of dementia is diminished short-term memory. Patients with severe dementia cannot perform activities of daily living.
    How is dementia diagnosed? - Diagnosis of dementia begins with a thorough physical exam and complete medical history, and followed by information-concentration-orientation test of Blessed et al. and the mini-mental state exam of Folstein et al.
    What's the treatment for dementia? - The goal of treatment is to control the symptoms of dementia. Treatment of dementia begins with treatment of the underlying disease.
    What's the long term dementia care? - Long-term dementia care may be needed for some patients with dementia. Possible options include in-home care, boarding homes, adult day care, and convalescent homes.
    What's alcohol-related dementia? - Alcohol related dementia is a form of dementia related to the excessive drinking of alcohol. Alcohol abuse can lead to several forms of dementia.
    What's frontal lobe dementia? - Frontal lobe dementia is a set of degenerative diseases producing many of the same symptoms as vascular dementia. The frontal lobe governs people's mood and behaviour.
    What's senile dementia? - Senile dementia is the mental deterioration (loss of intellectual ability) that is associated with old age. Senile dementia is often used when referring to Alzheimer's disease.
    What's early onset dementia? - Early onset dementia is a term that covers a range of diseases affecting memory and thinking in people under the age of 65.
    What's AIDS related dementia? - HIV associated dementia (HAD) is comprised of a spectrum of conditions from the mild HIV-1 motor cognitive-motor disorder to severe and debilitating AIDS dementia.
    What's Alzheimer's disease? - Alzheimer's disease is a form of degenerative brain disease resulting in progressive mental deterioration with disorientation, memory disturbance and confusion.
    What types of Alzheimer's disease are there? - Types of Alzheimer's disease include early onset Alzheimer's, late-onset Alzheimer's, and familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD).
    What're the stages of Alzheimer's disease? - Stages of Alzheimer's disease include no cognitive impairment, mild cognitive decline, moderate cognitive decline, moderately severe cognitive decline...
    What causes Alzheimer's disease? - The ultimate cause or causes of Alzheimer's disease are still unknown, there are several risk factors that increase a person's likelihood of developing the disease.
    What're the risk factors for Alzheimer's disease? - The risk for Alzheimer's disease increases with age. People with a family history of Alzheimer's have a greater risk.
    What're the warning signs of Alzheimer's disease? - The warning signs of Alzheimer's disease include memory loss, difficulty performing familiar tasks, problems with language, poor or decreased judgment.
    What're the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease? - The symptoms of Alzheimer's disease include memory lapses, perform routine tasks, loss of judgment, and personality or behavior changes.
    How is Alzheimer's disease diagnosed? - Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is complex. Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease begins with a thorough physical exam and complete medical history.
    What's the treatment for Alzheimer's disease? - Some treatments for Alzheimer's disease that can be used to help manage and ease the symptoms. Medications help alleviate the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and delusions.
    What medications treat Alzheimer's disease? - Four medications, tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine tartrate and galantamine, are used to improve intellectual function in some patients with Alzheimer's disease.
    What's the dietary therapy for Alzheimer's disease? - Dietary therapy for Alzheimer's disease involves appropriate intake of darkly colored fruits and vegetables, soy, alcohol, folate and vitamin B12.
    What's the exercise therapy for Alzheimer's disease? - Aerobic exercise is very important for helping to protect against mental decline during aging due to Alzheimer's disease.
    What's the prognosis of Alzheimer's disease? - A person with Alzheimer's disease lives an average of eight years and as many as 20 years or more from the onset of symptoms.
    What's vascular dementia? - Vascular dementia is a common form of dementia in older persons that is due to cerebrovascular disease, usually with stepwise deterioration.
    What types of vascular dementia are there? - There are a number of different types of vascular dementia. Two of the most common are multi-infarct dementia, binswanger's disease.
    What's multi-infarct dementia? - Multi-infarct dementia is the most common form of vascular dementia. Multi-infarct dementia is associated with atherosclerosis.
    What is Binswanger's disease? - Binswanger's disease is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by injuries to the blood vessels supplying the deep white-matter of the brain.
    What causes vascular dementia? - Vascular dementia can be caused in several different ways. Most commonly there is blockage of small blood vessels (arteries) deep within the brain.
    What're risk factors for vascular dementia? - The risk factors for vascular dementia are high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes and heart rhythm problems.
    What're the symptoms of vascular dementia? - Symptoms of vascular dementia include memory loss, difficulty doing usual daily activities, and a tendency to wander.
    How is vascular dementia diagnosed? - Vascular dementia is diagnosed based on history, symptoms, signs, and tests, and by ruling out other causes of dementia.
    What's the treatment for vascular dementia? - Treatment of vascular dementia is aimed at reducing the risk factors including stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol and heart disease.
    What's lewy body dementia? - Lewy body dementia is a progressive cause of dementia characterised by both cognitive problems and motor impairments.
    What causes lewy body dementia? - Lewy body dementia is caused by abnormal microscopic deposits of protein in nerve cells. Lewy bodies appear in deteriorating nerve cells.
    What're the symptoms of lewy body dementia? - Symptoms of lewy body dementia include a gradual loss of mental abilities, including orientation and memory, reasoning and intelligence.
    How is lewy body dementia diagnosed? - Lewy body dementia is diagnosed by taking a careful history of the pattern of symptoms, and by excluding other possible causes.
    What's the treatment for lewy body dementia? - There's no specific treatment for lewy body dementia. Treatment is directed at managing the signs and symptoms of the disease.
    What is Pick's disease? - Pick disease is a brain disorder that causes slowly worsening decline of mental abilities. Pick's disease is a less common type of dementia.
    What causes Pick's disease? - Pick's disease is a rare disorder similar to senile dementia/Alzheimer's type. Behavioral changes are prominent with loss of inhibition.
    What're the symptoms of Pick's disease? - The signs and symptoms of Pick's disease include loss of intellectual abilities and changes in behavior and personality.
    How is Pick's disease diagnosed? - Diagnosis of Pick's disease is based on initial diagnosis on history and symptoms, signs, and tests, and by ruling out other causes of dementia.
    What's the treatment for Pick's disease? - There is no proven effective treatment for Pick's disease. Monitoring and assistance with self-care may be required.
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